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The Constitution and the Emergence of Political Parties Timeline
1629 Massachusetts Bay Charter: freedom of religion, English rights
1682 PA Frame of Gov’t: freedom of religion, no taxation w/o representation, due process
1701 PA Charter of Liberties: unicameral legislature; council for rich, assemb for small landowners
1776-80 VA State Constitution (Decl. of Rights): religion, speech, press, search and seizure, jury trial (Mason)
 MA State Constitution: executive veto, bicameral legislature
 PA and GA: unicameral, wide white male franchise 
1777 Articles of Confederation: states rights, unicameral congress, no fed. taxation, requisitions from states
1785  Land Ordinance for Northwest Territory establishes “Jefferson’s’ grid. Resolves land disputes.
1785-89 Jefferson in Paris
1786  Shays’ Rebellion (MA)
1787 Northwest Ordinance: 60,000 pop. = apply for statehood, bill of rights, prohibits slavery (N of Ohio Riv)
 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia produces Constitution: (Beard, Bailyn, Wood)
  Virginia plan (Madison, Randolph): bicameral, popular vote and state assemblies, both proportional
   executive chosen by Congress, power over states
  Franklin Committee: states equally rep in Senate, House initiate money bills, 3/5 rule
  also: slave trade to 1808, electoral college, taxation, commerce, etc...
 Federalist Papers, Madison, Hamilton, Jay
1789 Washington/ Adams
  Judiciary Act: Supreme Court, mandamus (see Marbury v. Madison)
 French Revolution begins
1790-91 Hamilton’s Reports: Credit, Banking, Manufacturing
  funded debt, assumption (approved- by agreeing to move capital)
  Bank of the United States [BUS] (approved- using implied powers argument)
  increase manufacturing for self-sufficiency and employment (denied)
 Hamiltonians (Federalists)   Jeffersonians (Democratic Republicans)- see party chart
  federal power   states rights
  merchant capitalist/tariff  farmer/anti-tariff
  creditor/ currency control  debtor/ inflation
  bank/credit/ funded debt  balanced budget
  assumption at full value  assumption as lower market value (Madison)
  industry/fav. balance of trade  agricultural export/ import manuf. goods
  pro-British    pro-French
1793 France declares war on Britain: British blockade French West Indies
 Reign of Terror in French Revolution. Feds associate Republicans with Jacobins
1794 Whiskey Rebellion: PA farmers protest whiskey tax. Wash. and Hamilton march. Protesters disappear.   Contributes to mutual paranoia on both sides (Fed and Rep)
1795  Jay Treaty: British had refused to vacate forts in NW Territories: Jay gets GB to vacate, permit access of   mall ships to West Indies. British continue to seize ships and “impress” sailors. 
  Leads to party split with Republicans
 Pinckney’s Treaty (San Lorenzo): right from Spain to load goods at New orleans w/o duties. Open Miss. Riv
1796 Washington warns against factions and foreign entanglements in farewell address (isolationism)
1796 Adams/Jefferson
  Adams and Hamilton (supporting Pinckney) feud results in Jefferson’s vice-presidency
  gradual falling out (trivia: both die on July 4, 1826 at 91 and 83)
  Adams establishes Federalist control of Judiciary
1797-9 Quasi-War with France: France seizes US ships
  XYZ affair with Tallyrand’s deputies: US arms (GW in charge with Hamilton second-in-command)
  Napoleon becomes leader: Convention of Mortefontaine ends war; treaties of 1778 null, restrictions lifted
1798 Alien and Sedition Acts: 
  Alien Enemies Law: Presidential war powers, detention and deportation of foreigners
  Alien Law: Expel foreigners by decree
  Naturalization law: 14 year probation for immigrants before citizenship (presage Know Nothings)
  Sedition Act: criticism of gov’t is libel, tried by federal judiciary
 Midnight appointments of Adams leads to Marbury v. Madison (Marshall, Chief Justice to 1835)
1800 Jefferson/Burr
  Adams and Hamilton feud results in Jefferson’s victory 
   (Federalist lame duck House decides bet. Burr and Jeff) results in 12th Amendment
 Jeffersonians: reduce size and cost of gov’t, military, debt, repeal Alien and Sedition Acts, repeal taxes
 Federalists gradually lose strength due to unpopularity of Adams presidency and broadening of Republican   base under “Virginia Dynasty”
1803  Louisiana Purchase: 1801 Spain gives to France; 1802 Spain closes N.O. to US ships (break Pinckney Treaty)
  Livingston and Monroe negotiate Purchase for $15 mill.
1804  Louisiana Gov’t Bill: taxes with an appointed government (!)
 Lewis and Clark explore the Missouri River
1807  Embargo Act: “peaceable coercion” of Europeans to respect US neutrality
  In attempting to secure free trade (to support exports for agrarian production), Jefferson ironically encourages the growth of domestic manufactures (a Hamiltonian goal), and is compelled to regulate economy with police powers of state
1808  Madison/G. Clinton
1809 Embargo Act repealed
1811 BUS permitted to expire
 Harrison routs Tecumseh at Tippecanoe under mistaken suspicion that British were encouraging indian resistance to US settlement in Indiana Territory
  War Hawks call for mobilization for war with Britain
1812 War with Britain over neutrality, maritime right, impressment, and territorial issues
1814 Jackson and Battle of New Orleans/ (Trivia: Battle of Baltimore produces Star-Spangled banner)
 War ends with Treaty of Ghent with no resolution of impressment, neutrality or territorial issues
  results in rise in nationalism
 Hartford Convention: Embargo and War lead New England Federalists to consider calling for changes in   Constitution, such as eliminating 3/5ths rule,  limiting presidential terms (to end “VA dynasty”), and   requiring 2/3 majority for war, commercial regulations and admission of new states. “Victory” in New   Orleans and Treaty permit Republicans to paint Convention as wild secessionists.
  final end of Federalists
1816 Monroe/Tompkins: “era of good feelings” in absence of functioning two party system
 Second BUS
1819 Dartmouth College v. New Hampshire: Marshall establishes inviolability of contract. Daniel Webster argues that NH violated Dartmouth charter in declaring D. public. Protect private property from state.
 McCulloch v. Maryland: Marshal extends implied powers doctrine to protect BUS branch from Maryland taxes. (“loose constructionist” interpretation of power over fiscal matters)
1824 Gibbons v. Ogden: Marshall establishes broad interpretation of Interstate Commerce clause by denying the   right of NY to give monopoly for steamboat travel to Ogden (Fulton/Livingston company). Within its   sphere, Congress is supreme over States

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