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American Slavery and Sectionalism Timeline (with Mexican War)
1619  John Rolfe brings African slaves to Jamestown to harvest tobacco along with indentured whites
1630s  African slaves in Maryland
1649  Virginia has 300 black bondsmen
1654  English take Portuguese slave trade from Dutch (Cromwell’s Navigation Act)
  (Portuguese begin in 16 C; Dutch in early 17 C)
1656  Virginia prohibits Indian slavery
1660s  MD and VA begin establishing legal distinctions between the races (lifetime slavery, inheritance   of slaves, baptism irrelevant to status...)
1669-80 Barbadian connection in Carolina (Port Royal and Charleston)
1676  Bacon’s rebellion: Nathaniel Bacon’s gentry vs. VA Gov. William Berkley’s planters (Morgan)
1750 Georgia rescinds prohibition on slavery
1776  Passage denouncing slave trade omitted from Declaration of Independence
1780s  Northern states gradually abolish slavery through the 1820s
1787  Northwest Ordinance prohibits slavery north of Ohio River (Northwest Territories)
 Constitution:  3/5ths rule for representation and taxation(Article I, Section 2) 
      [changed by 14th Amendment]
     permits end of slave trade in 1808 (Article I, Section 9)
     fugitive slave clause (Article IV, Section 2) [superseded by 13th Amendment]
     congressional control of new territories (Article IV, Section 3) 
     document does not mention slavery
1776-98  Most southern states end slave trade to protect planters’ investment and due to concern over growing slave population (Stampp)
1793  Eli Whitney’s cotton gin (Carolinas, Georgia)
1790s Kentucky, Tennessee join Union (Mississippi, 1817; Alabama, 1819)
1798  VA and KY Resolutions (Jefferson and Madison) in opposition to Alien and Sedition Acts implicitly   support concept of nullification
1800  Gabriel Slave Conspiracy (GA)
1803  Louisiana Purchase: Louisiana, 1812; Missouri, 1821; Arkansas, 1836 (Florida, 1845)
1820  Missouri Compromise: Applies in 1817 as slave state. First from Louisiana Purchase
  Northern resentment of Southern control of presidency (and 3/5ths clause in House)
  Southern fear of senate balance and Northern population growth
  Rep. Tallmadge (NY) amendment to ban slavery in MO, supported by Sen. Rufus King (NY)
  Compromise: Missouri balance Maine, no slavery in Louisiana Terr. above 36?  30’
  Rep. Henry Clay (KY) brokers approval in House
1821  Mexican Independence: Mexicans invite Anglos into Texas
1822 Vesey Slave Conspiracy (SC)
1822  Vesey Slave Conspiracy (SC)
1829  Mexico abolishes slavery
1830  Mexico prohibits US immigration
1831  Nat Turner slave rebellion (VA): 70 slaves kill 60 whites in 2 days
 William Lloyd garrison founds The Liberator, abolitionist weekly in Boston 
1832  VA legislature debates slavery
 Nullification Crisis: Calhoun and SC assert state’s right to declare law unconstitutional (in   response to Tariff (of Abominations) of 1828. No other states support. Jackson responds with   Force Act and Compromise Tariff. Break between Jackson and Calhoun.
1830s  Slavery institutionalized and defended as “positive good” despite fact that 3/4 of Southerners do   not own slaves. Typical planter has few slaves, but typical slave is on big plantation.
  Yeoman and poor whites support to control competition, increase their mobility, join race caste.
  Slave codes made increasingly strict
  Deep South has most large plantations: SC, MS, GA, AL, LA, FL (1/2 to 1/3 are 10 or more)
  Upper South and new states have fewer: VA, NC, KY, TN, TX, AR, MD, MO, DE (1/4 to 1/30)
  Tobacco: MD, KY, MO, VA, NC/ Hemp: KY, MO/ Sugar, Rice, Cotton: AL, LA, MI, GA, SC
1835-6 Texas settlers dislike Mexican dictator Santa Anna (1834) and declare Texan independence (Alamo)
1840  Harrison/ Tyler elected: “Tippecanoe and Tyler too”
1841  Creole rebellion (ship)
Harrison dies. Tyler is a states rights, pro-slavery Whig. Declares annex. of Texas as slave state
1843  President Tyler (proslavery Whig, VA) pushes for TX annexation, supported by Sec. of State, Sen.   John Calhoun (SC), as means of protecting slavery from North and Brit. supported abolitionists
1844  Polk elected: pro-slavery, pro-annexation Democrat - “54''  40’ or fight” 
 W. L. Garrison burns the Constitution for its “support” of slavery
1845  Pres. Polk (Dem) annexes all of TX, but settles for half of Oregon (49?  not “54? 40’”)
 Journalist John O’ Sullivan coins “manifest destiny:” 1) God is on our side (city on a hill); 2) expand   freedom (Amer. Revolution); population expansion and opportunity (Jefferson)
1846-7 Mexican War  (claim Texas from Nueces to Rio Grande) brings new territory. 
 Rep. David Wilmot proposes Wilmot Proviso to ban slavery (and African Amer.) in Mexican terr. 
 Free Soilers see “slave power” in choice of Polk over Van Buren, Oregon/Texas, lowered tariff in ‘46
 Wilmot proviso blocked by Southerners and loyal Dems. Local responses expose sectional split
1847  Van Buren runs as Free Soil candidate/ Cass and Dems support “squatter sovereignty”
1848  Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo; NM and CA for $15 million; Rio Grande border; US assumes claims   against Mexico.  Adds 500,000 sq. mile to US (incl. Gadsen Purchase, 1853)
1850  Compromise of 1850 (Clay, Fillmore, Douglas [IL]): NM and UT popular sovereignty (Dems), CA as   free state, new Fugitive Slave Law (denied jury trial and right to testify)
1852  Party system breaks down. Dems win by default as Whigs lose cross-sectional appeal
 Uncle Tom’s Cabin
1854  Kansas-Nebraska Act: opens terr. north of compromise line to popular sovereignty (Douglas [Dem])  repeals Missouri Compromise line; Whigs, North. Dems and Free Soilers win in congressional   elections; Know-Nothings emerge as Whigs decline; Republicans emerge
1856  Bleeding Kansas: Free Soilers vs. slavery supporters. Pres. Pierce [Dem] sides with pro-slave.
 Buchanan (Dem) elected: Buch. v. Fré mont (Rep) in North; Buch. v. Fillmore (Know Not.) in South
1857  Dred Scott v. Sandford : MO slave travelled to WI (free by Miss. Compromise). Chief Justice Taney   not on grounds of citizenship, but denies Congress’ power to prohibit slavery in territories
   (MO Comp and Republican platform unconstitutional)
 Lecompton Controversy: Kansas pro slavery const. under false pretenses. Buchanan tries to accept
1858  Lincoln-Douglas debates for Senate in IL
 Kansas enters as free state
1859  South’s fear of slave and white rebellions increase: 
  John Brown raids Harper’s Ferry, VA, tried for treason. 
  Increase in slave prices forces a growing class split in ownership. 
  Rep. Sherman (supporter of “Helperism”) tries to become Speaker of House
1860  Lincoln (IL)  beats Seward (NY) for Rep. nomination: free soil, tariff, homestead, int. improv. 
  platf. combines Whig, North. Dem, Know-Nothing, Free Soil and Liberty (Abolition) appeal
 Douglas (Northern Dem): popular sovereignty vs. Breckinridge (Southern Dem): slavery in terr.
 Lincoln carries North, Northwest (WI, MN, IA) and West (CA, OR): Sectional split complete

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