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Populism and Progressivism Timeline
1869 Wyoming passes the first law in the United States giving women the right to vote. 
1871 Yellowstone Park is created. Pressed by a growing agitation for the conservation of the badly exploited natural resources of the country, Congress begins to reverse its wholesale giveaway programs and creates the park as a public preserve in Wyoming.
1873 Grasshopper plagues have devastated western farms. Droughts have exacerbated the harsh conditions under which farmers struggle for survival. In debt to banks and merchants for seed, tools, and machinery, the farmersí dream of an independent life is dissipating. 
1873 The Comstock Law bans obscene articles, including information about birth control, from the mail.
1874 The Womenís Christian Temperance Union is formed. 
1876 The first amendment relating to prohibition is proposed by Henry W. Blair of New Hampshire. 
1876 Frederick Law Olmsted completes the Central Park in New York City. 
1878 The Womenís Suffrage Amendment is introduced into Congress.
1878 Felix Adler founds the Workingmanís School.
1879 Henry George analyzes the problems of urbanizing America in Progress and Poverty.
1880 The National Farmersí Alliance is formed. The farmersí plight has taken on catastrophic proportions in the face of high tariffs, flood and drought, unfair railroad rates and high interest on loans and mortgages. 
1881 Kansas is the first state to prohibit the sale of liquor.
1881 President Hayes, whose wife is nicknamed Lemonade Lucy because she serves no alcohol in the White House, decrees that no alcoholic beverages are to be sold at military posts. 
1881 James Garfield is inaugurated president, and Chester A. Arthur becomes vice president.
1881 James Garfield is assassinated by a madman named Charles Guiteau.
1881 Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute is founded by Booker T. Washington. At Tuskegee Washington advocates an education limited to vocational skills, and from this base,Washington rises to national prominence.
1885 The American Economic Association is established. A number of young economists have become disillusioned with the premises standing behind the philosophy of laissez-faire. The organization is the first economic group to argue that the state must contribute actively in the way of "positive aid" to the just progress of its citizens. These economists contend that unless concerted efforts are made to prevent further degradation of the new class of workers, the American dream will turn into a nightmare of class warfare. Woodrow Wilson and Henry Adams are among the 186 founding members. 
1887 The Interstate Commerce Act is passed by Congress and signed into law. A five man commission is created to see that rates are just and "reasonable;" to forbid double-tiered rates for long and short hauls on freight carriers; to stop discriminatory rates between competitive and non-competitive localities and to stop the practice of pooling. 
1887 Edward Bellamy promotes the idea of socialist utopia in Looking Backward
1887 The Dawes Severalty Act is passed by Congress. It provides for 160 acres to be given individually to each Indian family. 
1888 Congress establishes a Department of Labor.
1888 Benjamin Harrison is elected president of the United States, and Levi Morton becomes vice president. 
1889 Jane Addams opens Hull House in Chicago.
1889 Frederick Winslow Taylor develops his principles of scientific management. His book, The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) is widely read by managers.
1890 The National Womenís Suffrage Association and the American Womenís Suffrage Association, both formed in 1869, merge to consolidate the womenís suffrage movement.
1890 Sherman Anti-trust Act is passed. It makes illegal "every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states, or with foreign nations." 
1890 Wyoming enters the Union as the first state to have womenís suffrage.
1890 Yosemite Park is created by an act of Congress.
1890 The Southern Farmers Alliance, the Farmersí Mutual Benefit Association, and the Colored Farmersí Alliance meet in Ocala, Florida, to see if there is some way to take joint action on their respective grievances. Racial barriers are too strong in the South and nothing comes of the 
1890 Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives.
1891 The Populist Party is formed at the national level in Cincinnati, Ohio.
1892 The Populist Party, also known as the Peopleís Party, holds its first national convention in Omaha, Nebraska. James B. Weaver is nominated as the partyís candidate for president, and the party issues forth its platform: Their important demands include government ownership of 
 railroads, free coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, an eight hour day, the popular election of senators, the secret ballot, government ownership of telegraphs and telephones, and government-owned warehouses.
1893 President Cleveland is inaugurated for a second term.
1895 U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co. The Supreme Court finds that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act is applicable only to monopolies involved in interstate trade. Ruling that a sugar combine is beyond the law, the Court draws a fine line between manufacturing and commerce. This ruling temporarily renders the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, which had been designed to regulate all forms of trusts, useless. 
1896 William Jennings Bryan gives his "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. He wins the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party.
1896 McKinley wins the presidential election. Garret Hobart is vice president. 
1896 John Deweyís laboratory school for testing and practice of new educational theory opens at University of Chicago
1898 Holden v. Hardy.  The Supreme Court upholds the validity of the Utah statute which limits daily working hours in mining industries to eight. 
1900 McKinley wins a second term as president. Theodore Roosevelt is vice president. 
1900 Frank Baumís The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is published.
1901 President McKinley is shot by Anarchist Leon Czolgosz as he attends a reception in Buffalo. He dies a week later of his wounds. 
1901 Under the leadership of John Mitchell, 140,000 United Mine workers go on strike that lasts through spring and summer. In October, President Roosevelt summons both sides to the White House to reach a settlement. A commission of arbitration is formed to investigate the minersí 
 grievances and will make recommendations as to  which demands should be met. Rooseveltís  assertion of the federal government as the arbitrator of such disputes becomes known as the defining aspect of his "Square Deal" policies. 
1902 Publication of Ida Tarbellís muckraking exposé, The History of the Standard Oil Company. Along with other such publications as Frank Norris' The Octopus, Lincoln Steffens' The Shame of the Cities, journalists will have a direct impact on the course of political action. 
1902 The special commission set up by Roosevelt to settle the Anthracite coal strike recommends shorter hours, a 10 percent wage increase, and an "open shop."
1903 Wisconsin is the first state to adopt direct primary elections. 
1903 The Elkins Act is passed by Congress. The act declares illegal all rebates on published freight rates.
1903 W.E.B. DuBois publishes Souls of Black Folk.
1904 Northern Securities Co. v. U. S.  The Supreme Court finds that the company violates the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. This is the first case that Roosevelt has undertaken in his campaign to bring big business within the restraint of law. 
1904 Theodore Roosevelt is elected president. Charles W. Fairbanks becomes vice president.
1905 Lochner v. New York. The Supreme Court finds unconstitutional a state law which limits maximum working hours for bakers. The Court holds that such a law interferes with the right to free contract and is an improper use of police powers. 
1905 The Niagara Movement is inaugurated, advocating integration and equal opportunity for African Americans 
1906 The Hepburn Act is passed by Congress with Rooseveltís strong endorsement. It gives teeth to the Interstate Commerce Act by permitting regulation of rates charged by railroads. 
1906 Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act are  passed by Congress, largely due to the of Upton Sinclairís muckraking book, The Jungle.
1908 William Howard Taft is elected president, and James S. Sherman is vice president.
1908 Muller v. Oregon.  The Supreme Court rules that an Oregon law instituting the maximum hours a woman can work is constitutional and denies that it curtails the liberty of contract.
1909 The Payne-Aldrich Tariff is passed by Congress with no disapproval from Taft, a president generally known for his endorsement of Progressive legislation. 
1909 The NAACP is founded by W.E.B. DuBois.
1910 The Mann-Elkins Act is passed by Congress. It increases the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission and extends the Commissionís jurisdiction to include telegraph and telephone companies. 
1910 The Mann Act is passed by Congress. Known as the "white slave traffic act," it prohibits the transportation of women across state lines for immoral purposes. 
1911 Senator Robert La Follette helps to found the National Progressive Republican League to protect more responsive government at all levels. The new League advocates the initiative, referendum, and recall; direct primaries; and more Progressive legislation in general. Later this year, La Follette is the partyís nominee for president.
1911 A Childrenís Bureau is formed within the U.S. Department of Labor to investigate means for the greater protection of maternal and infant health. 
1912 Rooseveltís followers form the "Bull Moose" Party, draining remaining liberal elements from the Republican Party.
1912 Woodrow Wilson is elected president, and Thomas R. Marshall becomes vice president.
1913 The 16th Amendment to the Constitution is adopted by the nation, providing the necessary legal basis for a graduated income tax.
1913 The Underwood Tariff Act is passed, under the encouragement of Wilson. The tariff is lowered for the first time since the Civil War, in order to "abolish everything that bears even the semblance of privilege or of any kind of artificial advantage." Congress will enact the graduated income tax to make up the difference in revenues. 
1913 The Owen-Glass Federal Reserve Act is passed. It creates 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks, and all national banks are forced to join the system. A Federal Reserve Board is created to manage the new network. 
1913 Henry Ford enacts the $5 a day plan when many laborer are not making not much more a week. 
1914 The Clayton Anti-Trust Act is passed by Congress. It is a victory for labor, as it exempts unions from anti-trust laws, and it makes strikes, picketing, and boycotting legal.
1916 Woodrow Wilson is reelected for a second term. Thomas Marshall is vice president. 
1916 Margaret Sanger forms the New York Birth Control League.
1916 The Keating-Owen Act, limiting child labor, is passed by Congress, but the Supreme Court declares the Act unconstitutional in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918).
1919 The 18th Amendment to the Constitution is passed, instituting the Prohibition of alcohol. The Volstead Act will be passed to enforce Prohibition.
1920 The 19th Amendment to the Constitution, giving women suffrage, is enacted. 
1921 The Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act is passed, helping to fund maternity and pediatric clinics.

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