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Henry David Thoreau, "Walden" (1854)

A leading figure in the literary movement known as Transcendentalism, Thoreau sought to reaffirm manĚs connection with nature and to simplify life so that primary, spiritual concerns "should not be lost amid the superfluities."  From July 4, 1845 to September 6, 1847, Thoreau lived in a cabin he had built near Walden Pond, and this writing is ThoreauĚs account of that experience.  ThoreauĚs sojourn to the woods was an experiment in living out those ideals that he, Emerson and others advocated.  "Walden" remains a classic account of an AmericanĚs relationship with nature - a relationship that has profoundly influenced the American experience.

I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.  I  did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear, nor did I wish to practice resignation, unless it was quite necessary.  I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world; or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion.  For most men, it appears to me, are in a strange uncertainty about it, whether it is of the devil or of God, and have somewhat hastily concluded that it is the chief end of man here to "glorify God and enjoy him forever."

Still we live meanly, like ants; though the fable tells us that we were long ago changed into men; like pygmies we fight with cranes; it is error upon error, and clout upon clout, and our best virtue has for its occasion a superfluous and evitable wretchedness.  Our life is frittered away by detail.  An honest man has hardly need to count more than his ten fingers, or in extreme cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest.  Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand; instead of a million, count half a dozen, and keep your accounts on your thumb nail.... Simplify, simplify.  Instead of three meals a day, if it be necessary eat but one; instead of a hundred dishes, five; and reduce other things in proportion....

The nation itself, with all its so called internal improvements, which, by the way, are all external and superficial, is just such an unwieldy and overgrown establishment, cluttered with furniture and tripped up by its own traps, ruined by luxury and heedless expense, by want of calculation and a worthy aim, as the million households in the land; and the only cure for them is in a rigid economy, a stern and more than Spartan simplicity of life and elevation of purpose.  It lives too fast.  Men think that it is essential that the Nation have commerce, and export ice, and talk through a telegraph, and ride thirty miles and hour, without a doubt, whether they do or not; but whether we should live like baboons or like men, is a little uncertain.

If we do not get our sleepers, and forge rails, and devote days and nights to the work, but go tinkering upon our lives to improve them, who will build railroads?  And is railroads are not built, how shall we get to heaven in season?  But if we stay at home and mind our business, who will want railroads?  We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us.  Did you ever think what those sleepers are that underlie the railroad?  Each one is a man, an Irishman, or a Yankee man.  The rails are laid on them, and they are covered with sand, and the cars run smoothly over them.  They are sound sleepers, I assure you.  And every few years a new lot is laid down and run over; so that if some have the pleasure of riding on a rail, others have the misfortune to be ridden upon.

Why should we live with such a hurry and waste of life?  We are determined to be starved before we are hungry.  Men say that a stitch in time saves nine, and so they take a thousand stitches today to save nine tomorrow....

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