||White Man's Democracy
Divine, pages 288-293 , 310-311 and begin 295-299
What caused the democratization of American culture during the Jacksonian
Era? In what ways did this democratization manifest itself?
What were its limits?
2. How did American views about democracy change between the
days of the founding fathers and the 1820s and 30s? How did this
change impact the way Americans viewed their social betters?
||Liberty or Union: Jackson, the
Nullification Crisis and the role of the State
Divine, pages 295-301 and 265 (map)
Supplement: Jackson, "Maysville Road Veto"
Supplement: South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification
Supplement: Calhoun, "Fort Hill Address"
Supplement: Jackson," Jackson's Address to the People of South Carolina"
Write out answers to homework questions 3 and 6 (last names A-M)
Write out answers to homework questions 3 and 7 (last names N-Z)
In what sense was Andrew Jackson a Jeffersonian Democrat? In what sense did the Nullification Crisis and Jackson’s veto of the Maysville Road Bill reveal very different theories on the relationship between the federal government and the states under the Constitution?
2. How did Jackson become a symbol of the democratic ferment of the period? To what extent was his image as a man of the people accurate?
3. What is the spoils system? How did Jackson defend the spoils system as promoting democratic values?
4. How did Jackson defend his veto of the Maysville Road Bill?
5. Why did South Carolina (and other Southern states) oppose high tariffs so vigorously? What states might have supported high tariffs? What did the Nullification crisis indicate about the relationship between the North and South in the 1830s?
6. In what sense did Jackson and his Vice President Calhoun espouse two conflicting views of the Constitution?
7. What is the significance of the Nullification Crisis? What does it have in common with the Hartford Convention?
||The Bank Crisis and the Rise of Whigs
Divine, pages 303-309 and 312
2. Why did Jackson oppose the rechartering of the bank? Why did he veto the bank bill? If Jackson and Van Buren like capitalism, why didn't they support the Bank of the United States?
3. What steps did Jackson take to destroy the bank? Why? What were pet banks? Why did Jackson see these as acceptable alternatives to the national bank? Why did ssome believe Jackson had overstepped his bounds?
4. How did Jackson’s policies on the bank and other issues lead to the formation of the Whigs?
5. How did the Whig and Democratic parties differ? What were the views of each on the federal role in the economy? On the balance between federal power and states rights? To what types of individuals did each party appeal?
6. How do the parties of the nineteenth century compare to the parties of today?
||Simulation: The Question of Native American
Divine, pages 299-301 and 265 (map)
Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall characterized Native American nations as oxymoronic “domestic dependency nations,” and the federal-Indian relationship as marked by peculiar and cardinal distinctions which exist nowhere else.”(Worcester v. Georgia, 1832)
Now, the Department of the Interior will hold hearings, led by the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Ima Whiteman, to establish the precise nature, political, cultural and economic, of Native American sovereignty. The immediate problem is resolving recent disputes in the news, the debate over the rights of Indian nations to store nuclear waste on their land,to expand reservations through land purchases, to exercise sovereignty and/or autonomy in land use, economic regulation, taxation, operating casinos, and education. The broader issues to be resolved include the following:
• Are Native American lands separate “nations”? If so, what does that
mean legally, politically, socially and economically? If not, what are
We will try to respond to these general questions, as well as the more proximate problems addressed in the newspapers, by convening a hearing of witnesses past and present. Each witness will be “on the stand” for two minutes and will address questions raised by the other witnesses, who may be hostile, supportive or merely curious. Each witness should prepare at least one quote (notecard) presenting an opinion on the issue central to her character’s relevant work (ie., reservation plans, treaties, education programs, legal status, economic controversies, US expansion, gambling rights, etc.), and a series of questions for the other witnesses on a range of relevant topics.
1. Why did southern states favor the removal of the civilized tribes? What actions did these states take against these tribes? How did Jackson reconcile radical democracy and liberty with indian removal?
||Sermons and Slums: Reforming the Irish, a Case Study in Ante-bellum
Divine, pages 316-321 and 363-370 (including tan pages)
What intentions and assumptions underlay urban reformers of the mid-19th century? To what extent was the desire to uplift the Irish an extension of Jacksonian ideals? To what extent was it a departure from Jacksonian ideals?
2. In what sense does the Second Great Awakening promote the ideals of Jacksonian Democracy? In what sense does it depart from them?
3. What concrete forms did the revival take? What distinguished the religious practices of revivalists from those of more mainstream Protestant believers?
4. What countries were the main sources of immigration to the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century? What conditions in the United States attracted such an influx of immigration?
5. How did the rise in immigration of the mid-19th century affect the characteristics of American urban life?
6. How did the entrance of Irish and German immigrants into the American work force reflect and cause changes in the character of the American working class? What challenges did Irish laborers face in their transition to the American industrial work force?
7. What was the significance of the saloon in the lives of the Irish-American working class?
8. How were the Irish perceived by the “native” American public? How do Evangelical Protestant reformers explain poverty? How do they use religion as a means of reform, uplift, social control? Why do they focus on temperance as a means of reform?
||Domesticity and Drudgery: The Roles of Women in
Supplement: Welter, "The Cult of True Womanhood"
Divine, pages 276-277 (on Lowell mills) 321 and 324-326
ADD documents on Lowell Mills Mary Paul and National Trades's Union Stuff
IN CLASS SLIDES: GENDER & THE SUBURBS
2. How was Lowell managed and presented to the world to overcome concern over female factory labor? How did mill owners exercise paternalism over their female workers?
3. What were working conditions like in the Lowell mills? How did workers respond to such conditions?
4. How might the suburbs be a product of the "cult of true womanhood," and the doctrine of separate spheres?
5. According to Barbara Welter, did women of the 1830s see the ideology of separate spheres as oppressive?
6. Why did the National Trades Union oppose female labor? According to the NTU and Mary Paul letters, how does factory labor affect women?
||Ante-Bellum Reform: Abolitionism to Women's Rights
Divine, pages 330-334
What is the relationship between the awakening and the reform movements of the ante-bellum period? How does the Abolitionist movement foster the movement for Women's Rights?To what extent do the reform movements promote the ideals of Jacksonian Democracy?
2. What was the goal of colonizationists? Why did William Lloyd Garrison disagree with the colonizationists?
3. What was the abolitionist critique of slavery? What does this indicate about the relationship between abolitionist movement and the Second Great Awakening?
4. How did Southerners react to the abolitionist agenda? Northerners? Why?
5. What were the sources of division within the abolitionist movement?
6. To what extent was the abolitionist movement of the 1830s and 1840s successful?
7. In what ways was the women’s rights movement of the ante-bellum period an outgrowth of the abolitionist movement?
8. What demands did women’s rights advocates make? What arguments did they use to promote women’s rights?
||The Virtue of Simplicity: Literature and Thought
of the Jacksonian Era
Divine, pages 334-336 and 337
Supplement: Henry David Thoreau, "Walden"
Supplement: Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Self Reliance"
Supplement: Walt Whitman, from "I Hear America Singing"
SLIDES: Thomas Cole
In what sense did the literature of the Jacksonian era reflect the spirit of the era? To what extent do these writings express ideals long held by Americans?
2. What was transcendentalism? What were its main principles? What factors may have inspired the emergence of the transcendentalist movement at this time?